When designing an OPS system, many parameters need to be considered. Terminals equipped with OPS have to take into account the variations in power, voltage and frequency levels in different parts of the world.
Early low-voltage systems (typically 400-480 V) require numerous connection cables, while recent high-voltage systems (6.6 -11 kV) are easier to handle, but will need an onboard transformer.
The difference in frequency between the North American continent/parts of Japan and the rest of the world is also a factor that needs to be allowed for.
In addition, the frequency and voltage of onboard electrical systems may differ among vessel’s sizes and categories.